This article explores IT and software related disputes, highlighting the complexities and risks surrounding software agreements, namely with regards to intellectual property rights, contractual and data privacy issues, while underscoring practical strategies when drafting and monitoring the performance of the agreements.

The information technology (IT) sector has revolutionised the way we live, work, and communicate. It has transformed businesses across all sectors and has enabled them to be more efficient, productive, and cost-effective. The growth experienced by the IT sector in the past few decades has been driven largely by technological innovation and the widespread adoption of digital transformation initiatives across various industries. However, as it often occurs, progress in this case has brought some risks which resulted in the escalation of litigation.

As companies continuously pursue innovation and become increasingly dependent on third parties to provide key services and technology to support their business operations, disputes inevitably arise, each presenting its own unique set of challenges. These disputes can encompass a range of critical areas, including disputes over intellectual property (IP) rights, disputes over the interpretation and performance of a software licence or support and maintenance agreement, and the complex realm of data privacy.

IP-related litigation is a particularly intricate area, as companies frequently find themselves entangled in legal battles over patents, trademarks, and copyrights. For businesses that heavily rely on their IP assets to maintain a competitive edge, such disputes can significantly impact their market position and prospects. A famous landmark of IP litigation in the IT sector in the US is the case of Oracle vs Google, which focused on whether Google had infringed Oracle’s copyright by using parts of its Java programming language in the Android operating system. The US Supreme Court ultimately ruled in favour of Google, stating that their use of Java application programming interface (API) was permissible under fair use, setting a significant precedent for software copyright and innovation. Nonetheless, this case highlights the complex legal issues that can arise in the IT industry when it comes to IP rights.

Interpretation and performance of software agreements is another frequent issue within the IT sector, with conflicts between the IT provider and its client increasingly arising from alleged breach of contract. With the growing complexity and costs of software projects, contractual litigation may arise when the IT work carried out or the software implemented and/or the support and maintenance provided are not fit for their purpose or have not been performed as expected. These types of disputes often relate to specific contractual terms, such as service level agreements (SLAs), key performance indicators (KPIs), implementation calendars, testing or project management, and frequently entail the discussion on the scope, functionalities, or quality of the services subject to the agreement.

Portuguese court experience also shows that legal discussions recurrently arise, namely regarding the qualification and legal regime applicable to these types of contracts – whether a services provision contract (prestação de serviços) subject to Articles 1154 to 1156 of the Portuguese Civil Code, or a works contract (empreitada) subject to Articles 1207 to 1213 of the Portuguese Civil Code – or the nature of the IT provider’s obligations – whether obligations of result or obligations of means (e.g. recent decisions from the Lisbon Appellate Court dated 09.03.2021  and from the Évora Appellate Court dated 17.12.2020).

These contractual disputes can quickly escalate, jeopardizing the reputation and stability of both parties involved.

The client’s business operation and trust in the IT service provider may be severely undermined. Unmet expectations can damage business relationships and potential future business opportunities. The client may be faced with significant costs to mitigate the negative impacts of the breach, which may lead to business interruption and the need to find alternative solutions. Likewise, the IT service provider faces substantial risks. Disputes with the client can result in non-payment of the agreed fees and consequent decrease of revenue necessary to recover the costs of developing the software and to invest in the development or acquisition of new products and services. Potential financial penalties, compensation claims, or legal actions initiated by the client can additionally affect its financial stability and market standing. Also, the reputation of the company may suffer, resulting in potential loss of clientele and a tarnished brand image.

Dispute resolution proceedings in these cases – whether court litigation or arbitration – are generally complex, often involving large amounts of facts and documents as well as expert evidence.

Additionally, the rise in data-driven technologies has introduced a new dimension of legal complexities, with data privacy disputes becoming increasingly prevalent in recent years and organisations struggling to navigate in the intricate web of regulations governing data protection and privacy (such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) which has had a significant impact on how companies handle personal data), often leading to legal disputes over compliance issues, data breaches, and unauthorised access to sensitive information. The multifaceted nature of these litigation challenges underscores the importance for IT companies to adopt proactive measures to mitigate risks and ensure legal compliance, safeguarding both their reputation and the interests of their clients.

The potential data protection disputes that may arise out of or in connection with IT and software contracts go beyond the parties to the agreements. They may involve authorities, regulators, and a potential massive number of data subjects, thus opening the door to possible collective actions and higher litigation risks.

Probably the most well-known case of data privacy litigation is that of Facebook and Cambridge Analytica. In 2018, it was revealed that Cambridge Analytica had obtained data from millions of Facebook users without their consent. The incident raised serious concerns about data privacy and led to multiple investigations and lawsuits against both Facebook and Cambridge Analytica.

Additionally, several collective actions have been brought in the European Union and in the United Kingdom based on breaches of data protection laws including against social media and other (tech) businesses such as Google and Tik Tok, to name but a few examples. These types of lawsuits may also result from data breaches following cyberattacks, such as the ones in discussion on the cases filed against British Airways, Marriott or EasyJet.

All in all, litigation in the dynamic landscape of the IT sector is indeed a complex issue that can have significant financial and reputational consequences for all parties involved. By focusing on prevention strategies, businesses can minimise the risk of disagreements arising and improve the chances of a successful outcome in the event that a dispute does occur. Ultimately, the key to successful IT projects is proactive planning, effective communication, and a deep understanding of the industry and its risks. These are also crucial if disputes arise not only as relevant tools to foster amicable solutions, but also to obtain successful outcomes in case of court litigation or arbitration.

Navigating the intricate landscape of IT-related litigation, with its complexities in IP disputes, contractual conflicts, and data privacy challenges, underscores the critical importance of proactive strategies. As the IT sector continues to evolve and expand, ensuring the right IT service provider is selected becomes a pivotal factor in risk mitigation. The expertise and reliability of the IT service provider can significantly influence the likelihood of disputes. Therefore, transitioning seamlessly from understanding the litigation risks to the essential steps in selecting the right IT service provider is paramount in fostering a comprehensive approach to managing potential conflicts and maintaining a smooth, productive IT ecosystem.

1.Choosing the right IT service provider

One of the most important steps in any IT project is to choose the right IT service provider. Engaging in thorough due diligence on reliable potential providers to ensure that they have the expertise and experience necessary to deliver the desired services is ultimately crucial for mitigating the risk of litigation. Conducting comprehensive background checks, assessing the provider’s track record, and seeking references from past clients can offer valuable insights into a service provider’s professionalism, reliability, and ability to deliver. Taking the time to thoroughly evaluate the provider’s technical expertise, financial stability, and adherence to industry standards can go a long way in minimising the risk of disputes arising from inadequate services or contractual breaches.

2.Defining clear contract terms and dispute resolution mechanisms

Clear and well-defined contract terms are also essential to foster successful outcomes in the IT sector. Contracts should clearly outline the scope, functionality, and quality of the services to be delivered, as well as the responsibilities of each party, leaving minimal room for ambiguity or misinterpretation.

Moreover, clients should proactively incorporate dispute resolution mechanisms into their contractual agreements that allow permanent communication and expedite the resolution process and the settlement of controversies that may arise, while preserving the parties’ relationships and avoiding costly and time-consuming battles. Multi-tiered dispute resolution clauses may comprise different steps and include a sequence composed of negotiation, mediation and/or expert determination prior to arbitration. Permanent dispute boards can also be considered to accompany the performance of the contract and help avoiding or overcoming disagreements. Such mechanisms promote a more cooperative and collaborative approach to resolving disputes, potentially preserving business relationships, and reducing the financial burden associated with litigation or arbitration.

3.Ensuring compliance with Regulations

Compliance with regulations plays a pivotal role in preventing litigation in the IT sector, with data privacy regulations, such as the GDPR, taking centre stage. In an age where personal data has become a valuable and sensitive asset, clients must prioritise partnering with IT service providers who demonstrate a strong commitment to regulatory compliance.

Clients should ensure that their IT service provider is fully compliant with the principles and requirements outlined in the GDPR, such as ensuring lawful and transparent data processing, obtaining appropriate consent, implementing robust security measures, and facilitating data subject rights.

In this sense, a comprehensive review of the IT provider’s policies, procedures, and data protection frameworks is imperative to assess their compliance status. This includes scrutinising their data handling practices, data retention policies, breach notification procedures, and their ability to fulfil requests for data access, rectification, and erasure. By selecting a compliant IT service provider and ensuring that proper data protection measures are in place, clients can significantly minimise the risk of data privacy-related litigation and uphold their obligations to protect personal data in accordance with the applicable regulations.

4.Maintaining clear communication and closely monitoring the performance of the contract

Parties should maintain regular communication to ensure that they both have a clear understanding of the project’s scope, timelines, and objectives. Clients should also ensure that any issues or concerns are raised and addressed promptly to prevent them from escalating into disputes.

On the one hand, regular monitoring of performance metrics provides each party with valuable insights into the progress and quality of the IT service provider’s work. By monitoring SLAs and tracking KPIs, each party can identify any deviations or potential areas of concern early on, enabling them to address these issues proactively and collaboratively. Establishing regular progress meetings or check-ins provides a structured platform for open dialogue, allowing both parties to discuss project updates, address any emerging challenges, and align expectations. Clients should proactively raise any issues, concerns, or discrepancies they encounter, and collaborate with the IT service provider to find mutually agreeable solutions. By promptly addressing and resolving potential issues, both parties can maintain the project’s momentum, prevent small conflicts from snowballing into significant disputes, and preserve the overall health of the business relationship.

Overall, ongoing communication fosters a sense of transparency, trust, and shared responsibility between clients and IT service providers, which can help prevent misunderstandings and conflicts.

On the other hand, effective monitorisation of the performance of the contract, aiming to ensure strict compliance of the contractual terms and clear and permanent assessment of the potential fragilities and risks of any dispute that may arise, is essential to ensure successful outcomes in case of arbitration or court litigation.


In conclusion, the dynamic landscape of the IT sector demands a comprehensive and holistic approach. Businesses must seamlessly integrate elements such as selecting the right IT service provider, defining clear contract terms, ensuring regulatory compliance, and maintaining open communication. However, it is crucial to acknowledge that, despite proactive efforts, disputes and challenges may still arise. Therefore, an equally important part of the strategy is a well-prepared litigation scenario and crisis management. In this ever-evolving environment, success lies in not only anticipating risks but also in the ability to navigate and mitigate them swiftly and effectively.

Picture of Joana Neves

Joana Neves

Associada Coordenadora | Vieira de Almeida
The Insights published herein reproduce the work carried out for this purpose by the author and therefore maintain the original language in which they were written. The opinions expressed within the article are solely the author’s and do not reflect in any way the opinions and beliefs of WhatNext.Law or of its affiliates. See our Terms of Use for more information.

Leave a Comment

We'd love to hear from you

We’re open to new ideas and suggestions. If you have an idea that you’d like to share with us, use the button bellow.